Laser Literature Review
Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences.
Afrasiabi et al1 published a study on the comparison of bacterial disinfection efficacy using blue and red lights on dental implants contaminated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. They concluded that aPDT could be an effective supplement in dental implants disinfection, with the LED proving to be better in reducing CFU/ml of A. actinomycetemcomitans on dental implants surface than the blue Diode Laser.
Alves and coworkers2published a study to evaluate the effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in reducing gingivitis following professional dental prophylaxis in dogs in a prospective, randomly controlled, double-blind study. They concluded that it significantly reduced the grade of gingivitis following dental prophylaxis, and may be a useful adjuvant procedure following dental prophylaxis.
Pooja et al3 studied the effectiveness of low level laser therapy in reducing pain perception in children during local anaesthetic administration using a laser acupuncture pen. They found that it reduced the pain and alleviated dental anxiety.
Nair and coworker4 examined whether the laser fluoresce based dental device (DIAGNOdent) which at present is being used to detect caries could be used to detect therapeutic remineralization of early white spot lesions. They found that it could.
Mira et al5 published a systematic review aimed to analyze previous clinical studies on the application of LLLT at acupoints among pediatric dental patients. They found that LLLT at acupuncture points is associated with positive results on sleep bruxism, preanesthetic pain, and gag reflex in pediatric dentistry.
Tu et al6 evaluated the clinical benefits of Er:YAG laser combined with guided bone regeneration (GBR) in the treatment of peri-implantitis-associated osseous defects. They found that Er: YAG laser therapy is more effective than traditional mechanical methods and is more conducive to the regeneration of new bone.
Noelken and coworkers7 evaluated the regeneration of severe peri-implantitis deficiencies treated with the laser-assisted peri-implant defect regeneration (LAPIDER) approach within a 3-year follow-up. The abstract is reproduced in full.
| PURPOSE: This retrospective cohort study evaluates the regeneration of severe peri-implantitis deficiencies treated with the laser-assisted peri-implant defect regeneration (LAPIDER) approach within a 3-year follow-up.
METHODS: Twenty-four implants with severe peri-implantitis in 18 patients were treated according to the LAPIDER technique. In contrast to classic techniques for reconstructive peri-implantitis surgery with a marginal incision, a buccal split-flap preparation avoiding papillae separation was used. After a coronal flap elevation and a laser-assisted peri-implant defect cleaning, connective tissue and autogenous bone grafting was performed. Primary outcomes were the changes of the marginal bone levels (MBL) and the buccal bone thickness. Secondary outcomes included implant survival, peri-implant probing depths (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), recession, width of keratinized mucosa (KMW), thickness of keratinized mucosa (KMT), soft tissue esthetics (PES), and implant success.
RESULTS: MBL improved interproximal by 3.10±2.02mm (p<0.001), buccal by 3.49±2.89mm (p<0.001), and lingual by 1.46±1.98mm (p=0.003); buccal bone thickness by 0.55±0.60mm (p=0.005), and 1.01±1.25mm (p=0.001) at 1 and 3mm below reference level. Two implants were removed; 22 implants were still in function at a mean follow-up of 36months. PPD changed from 5.05±1.39 to 3.08±0.71mm (p<0.001); recession was reduced from 2.07±1.70 to 0.91±1.13mm (p=0.001); KMW increased from 2.91±1.81 to 4.18±1.67mm (p=0.006); KMT improved from 1.73±0.50 to 2.44±0.43mm (p<0.001); PES changed from 7.7±2.8 to 10.7±1.9 (p<0.001). 45.8% to 54.2% of the implants met the criteria of implant success.
CONCLUSIONS: The favorable results document the proof of principle for the regeneration of severe peri-implant hard and soft tissue deficiencies by the LAPIDER treatment approach.
Zhu et al8 investigated theeffect of different frequencies of Er:YAG laser on bond properties of zirconia ceramic. They found that the Er:YAG laser with 10 Hz can replace 110 mum Al2O3 sandblasting for surface modification of Y-TZP, in order to increase the bonding strength between Y-TZP and resin cement.
Jomaa and coworkers9 examined the efficacy of the 810nm and 650 nm diode laser in combination with sodium fluoride gel in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. They concluded that the application of an 810 nm diode laser either alone or in combination with sodium fluoride gel in treating dentin hypersensitivity is effective and better than the application of a 650 nm diode laser either alone or in combination with sodium fluoride gel.
Luchian et al10 published a review of photobiology in dentistry.
The abstract is reproduced in full.
Light is an emerging treatment approach that is being used to treat many diseases and conditions such as pain, inflammation, and wound healing. The light used in dental therapy generally lies in visible and invisible spectral regions. Despite many positive results in the treatment of different conditions, this therapy still faces some skepticism, which has prevented its widespread adoption in clinics. The main reason for this skepticism is the lack of comprehensive information about the molecular, cellular, and tissular mechanisms of action, which underpin the positive effects of phototherapy. However, there is currently promising evidence in support of the use of light therapy across a spectrum of oral hard and soft tissues, as well as in a variety of important dental subspecialties, such as endodontics, periodontics, orthodontics, and maxillofacial surgery. The merging of diagnostic and therapeutic light procedures is also seen as a promising area for future expansion. In the next decade, several light technologies are foreseen as becoming integral parts of modern dentistry practice.
Kurian and coworkers10 conducted a qualitative analysis of the published data evaluating the antibacterial efficacy of laser-activated nanoparticles in the elimination of E. faecalis from the root canal system. They found that lasers showed superior antibacterial efficacy compared to conventional irrigation techniques.
Simoes et al11 published an article which summarizedthe current knowledge on the influence of laser surface treatment on the adhesion of bacteria to titanium and its alloys. They found that surface treatment by laser irradiation is a promising technique to reduce the adhesion of bacteria on the surface of titanium implants.
Alves, Joao C; Jorge, Patricia and Santos, Ana. The Effect of Photobiomodulation Therapy on Inflammation Following Dental Prophylaxis.Journal of veterinary dentistry , pp.8987564221150525. 2023-jan-11.3.
Pooja, Bellamkonda; Kamatham, Rekhalakshmi; (...); Avisa, Priyanka. Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in reducing pain perception of children during dental local anesthetic administration using laser acupuncture pen on the LI4 point: a randomized clinical trial. European archives of paediatric dentistry: official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 2023-jan-16.
Nair, Megha J; Rao, Arathi; (...); Suprabha, B S. Effectiveness of laser fluorescence-based device in detecting the extent of re-mineralisation in primary teeth compared to the conventional method: An In vitro study.Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research 33 (3) , pp.292-296. 2022 Jul-sep.
Luchian, Ionut; Budala, Dana Gabriela; (...); Tatarciuc, Monica. The Involvement of Photobiology in Contemporary Dentistry-A Narrative Review. International Journal of molecular sciences. 2023-02-16. 24 (2).
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