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April 2024 Literature Review

Laser Literature Review

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences.

Salman and Hussein1 published an article about human enamel after phosphoric acid etching and Er, Cr YSGG laser irradiation.  Surface roughness and wettability in response to Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation are essential properties for restoration longevity. They found that the SEM examination revealed that the lased enamel surface was clean, irregular, and devoid of a smear layer, while the acid etch surface was relatively smooth and covered with a smear layer. Concluding that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be used as an alternative and safe method to the acid-etching technique for surface treatment.


Gilbas-Stanek et al2 published a study which reviewed the current knowledge based on in vitro and in vivo studies that evaluated the enamel damage connected with removal of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets taking into account different debonding methods. They found the thermal method and laser irradiation reduce the risk of enamel fracture.


Lu Zhu and coworkers3 published the results of a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of concentrated growth factor (CGF) and laser therapy on wound healing, inferior alveolar nerve injury and periodontal bone defects post mandibular impacted wisdom tooth extraction. They found that CGF and laser therapy significantly enhanced the healing of wounds, including soft tissue and bone recovery in addition to accelerating the recovery of IAN injuries following mandibular wisdom tooth extraction.


Salazar et al4 published a systematic review of trends in photobiomodulation in dentistry between 2018 and 2022. Through a detailed bibliometric analysis, this study underscores the increasing significance of PBM, especially within the realm of dental treatments.

Shenoy and coworkers5 examined the effect of photobiomodulation techniques, particularly low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to accelerate osseointegration by stimulating cellular metabolism and promoting tissue healing. They found that LLLT shows promise in improving dental implant outcomes, with enhanced stability and osseointegration. 


Alam et al6 published an article which examined the effect of photobiomodulation therapy on common maxillofacial injuries. They concluded that it offered a safe and non-invasive treatment option for patients suffering from traumatic maxillofacial injuries, although further research is required.


Abo El-Dahab and coworkers7 published an article which assessed the possible influence of infrared diode laser irradiation on the behavior, attachment, and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) seeded on different types of dental implants.

The findings  revealed that when subjected to infrared diode laser, human periodontal ligament stem cells cultured on both types of implants demonstrated improved cellular attachment and differentiation. This suggested that infrared diode laser enhanced the activity of the cells surrounding the implants. Hence, the use of infrared diode laser could be pivotal in improving and expediting the clinical osseointegration process around dental implants.

Fahim et al8 published the results of a random clinical trial on the efficacy of 2780 nm Er,Cr;YSGG and 940 nm Diode Laser in root canal disinfection. They found that the integration of lasers into root canal disinfection protocols has demonstrated significant bacterial reduction which might promote healing and long-term success.


Anwar and coworkers9 investigated the efficacy of intra-pocket application of diode laser (980nm) versus antibiotic therapy in enhancing clinical and microbiological parameters in stage III grade C periodontitis. They found that Laser therapy can be considered as an effective treatment modality in stage III grade C periodontitis, avoiding the systemic antibiotic side effects and solving the recurrence problems due to bacterial resistance by long term usage.


Morikowa et al10 evaluated the antimicrobial effect of PDT using an Nd:YAG laser and resveratrol (RSV) with or without pigment, and confirmed that RSV is nontoxic as a photosensitizer .


Vineet and coworkers11 published a study which assessed the clinical efficacy of 445nm Diode laser as an adjunct to Kirkland flap surgery in management of periodontitis. The abstract is reproduced in full.


Aim of this study is to assess the clinical efficacy of 445nm Diode laser as an adjunct to Kirkland flap surgery in management of periodontitis.Type of study is a Split mouth clinical trial in which a total of 13 patients were recruited based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. In each participant, random allocation of selected sites into test and control in contralateral quadrants was done. Clinical parameters such as probing depth and clinical attachment loss was measured in control and test sites using occlusal stents. Flap surgery was carried out 6 weeks after phase I therapy and the selected contralateral sites with a probing depth of>5mm were subjected to surgical therapy. In a test quadrant, 445 nm diode laser with a power of 0.8 W, CW mode, 320 m fiber, in non-contact mode was used as an adjunct to flap surgery. Primary outcome variable assessed was change in PPD between baseline, pre-operative, 1-, 3- and 6-months post-surgery. Secondary outcomes variables assessed were Clinical attachment loss at baseline, pre-operative, 1, 3 and 6 months, visual analog scale at days 3 and 7 and patient satisfaction index at day 7 post surgery. Surgery for the second site (Test/control) in the contralateral quadrants was performed 1 week after the first surgery.A higher reduction in probing depth and gain in CAL was observed in test site at 1, 3 and 6 months follow up amongst all the included participants. VAS score was lower at the test site as compared to the control sites. PSI scores were similar in both the sites.The adjunctive use of 445nm diode laser to surgical periodontal therapy contributed to improved short term clinical outcomes as assessed at the end of 6 months post- surgery. VAS score indicative of post -surgical discomfort were also lower for the laser treated sites. Hence adjunctive use of laser (445nm wavelength) can be recommended for achieving more predictable clinical outcomes.


Noerpuspita et al12 compared the in vitro effect of laser and bur preparation on marginal adaptation of Class V cavities restored with a 2-step self-etch and distinct universal one-component universal adhesives used in self-etching mode. They found that class V cavities presented smoother and higher percentages of continuous margins when prepared by bur rather than by laser.


Ozer and coworkers13 evaluated the effect of LLLT on healing sockets in pediatric patients with bilateral primary molar teeth extraction and determined its impact on pain management. They concluded that although LLLT was not found to be very effective in reducing postoperative discomfort after extraction of primary molars, it provided better wound healing in extraction sockets.









  1. Fahim, Sara ZakariaGhali, Rami Maher; (...); Farid, Mary Medhat. The efficacy of 2780 nm Er,Cr;YSGG and 940 nm Diode Laser in root canal disinfection: A randomized clinical trial. Clinical oral investigations 28 (3) , 2024-02-26. pp.175.

  2. Anwar, Souzy KamalHafez, Amira Mohamed and Roshdy, Yara Safwat. Clinical and microbiological efficacy of intra-pocket application of diode laser in grade C periodontitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. 23BMC oral health 24 (1), 2024-02 , pp.270.

  3. Morikawa, MasakiUehara, Shunsuke; (...); Masuda, Yoshiko. Photodynamic Therapy With Resveratrol and an Nd:YAG Laser for Enterococcus faecalis Elimination. 2024 Mar-aprIn vivo (Athens, Greece) 38 (2) , pp.559-566.

  4. V, VineetSk, Balaji; (...); Lavu, Vamsi. Assessment of clinical efficacy of 445nm Diode laser as an adjunct to Kirkland flap surgery in the management of periodontitis - a split mouth randomized clinical trial.  2024-02-28Lasers in medical science 39 (1) , pp.82.

  5. Noerpuspita, PutriKrejci, Ivo and Bortolotto, Tissiana. Marginal adaptation of two-step self-etch versus universal adhesives for Class V restorations: Effect of Er:YAG laser vs. bur prepared cavities. 2024-febAmerican journal of dentistry 37 (1) , pp.29-34.

  6. Ozer, Hazal and Inci, Merve Abakli.  Effect of low-level laser therapy in wound healing of primary molar teeth extraction. 2024-03-19BMC oral health 24 (1) , pp.348.

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