Laser Literature Review
Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences.
Hou et al1 published a paper on the effect of bleaching combined with Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser on shear bond strength and microleakage of resin restorations. They concluded that it had certain clinical advantages due to its less influence on bond strength and microleakage of resin fillings.
Mankar and coworkers2 published a paper on low level laser therapy in endodontics. The abstract is reproduced in full.
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) stands out in the realm of dentistry for its unique attributes that set it apart from traditional therapeutic approaches. This non-invasive and painless modality harnesses the power of low-intensity lasers, offering a distinct advantage in terms of safety and patient comfort. Unlike many conventional methods, LLLT does not rely on pharmaceutical interventions or invasive procedures, making it a gentle yet effective option for various dental applications. Its non-thermal, photobiomodulatory effects on cellular and tissue functions mark a notable departure from the more aggressive treatment modalities commonly associated with dentistry. This article provides an extensive exploration of LLLT's applications in dentistry, focusing on its mechanisms of action and biological effects, and emphasizes the uniqueness of LLLT as a transformative tool in modern dental care.
Ghane et al3 published a systematic review of the application of high power lasers for immediate implant placement in infected sites. The review tended to primarily target a question: does applying high-power laser have any positive effect on infected sites in immediate implant placement? The study focused on 245 implants whose infected bed had been already decontaminated and prepared with the help of the high-intensity laser, used either alone or in combination with other approaches before implantation. With only nine failures, the implants inserted in infected and irradiated areas had a 96.3% overall survival rate.
Deeb and coworkers 4 published a study on the effectiveness and practicality of erbium lasers for ceramic restoration removal. Their conclusions were that lasers present a safe and effective alternative to invasive methods for removing ceramic restorations, without causing harm to the abutment or prosthesis. Laser-assisted debonding allows for recementation of the restorations during the same appointment.
Matys, Jacek et al5 published a study to assess the quantity of aerosols and aerobic bacteria in the air during the treatment of caries. They found that using the Er:YAG laser during caries treatment resulted in a 41.6% reduction in aerosol amounts and a 78.5% decrease in the total bacterial count (TBC) compared to treatment with a dental turbine.
Onder, M Ercrument and coworkers 6 published a paper about biomimetic dental implant production. The abstract is reproduced in full.
Instead of a textured surface with irregular pore size and distribution as in conventional dental implants, the use of lattice structures with regular geometric structure and controlled pore size produced by selective laser powder bed fusion melting (LPDF) technique will provide more predictable and successful results regarding osseointegration and mechanics. In this study, biomimetic dental implants with 2 different pore designs were fabricated by LPDF technique and compared with conventional dental implants in terms of surface characterization and resistance to biomechanical forces. Finite element analysis, scanning electron microscopy, computed micro tomography scanning, ISO 14801 tests and detork tests were used for the comparison. The tested biomimetic implants were found to be as durable as conventional implants in terms of mechanical strength and detork values. They were also found to be 40-60% more advantageous than conventional dental implants with respect to surface area and volume. As a result, it was concluded that biomimetic dental implants with sufficient mechanical strength and complex surface geometries can be made as designed without changing the reliable base material and can be produced using a different manufacturing method.
Taceuchi Yasuo and cowrkers7 published a paper on the use of LEDs in periodontics which readers may find of interest, stating that although limited evidence exists on LED-based a-PDT for periodontitis, a-PDT using red or blue LED light could be effective in attenuating bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. LEDs have the potential to provide a new direction for light therapy in periodontics. Hou, Xiu-Xiu et al8 evaluated the effects of bleaching combined with Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser on bond strength and microleakage of resin fillings on enamel surface. They found that compared to traditional bleaching, bleaching combined with laser has certain clinical advantages due to its less influence on bond strength and microleakage of resin fillings.
Takeuchi and coworkers9 published an article on the use of LED based a-PDT for use in periodontitis. They concluded that aithough limited evidence exists on LED-based a-PDT for periodontitis, a-PDT using red or blue LED light could be effective in attenuating bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. LEDs have the potential to provide a new direction for light therapy in periodontics.
Tamim et al10 reviewed in vivo studies on gingival troughing using dental lasers to compare achieved gingival displacement, influence on periodontal health, and other relevant clinical parameters with different existing gingival displacement methods. They concluded that the time needed to achieve gingival displacement was shortest and easiest with lasers. Lasers resulted in either less or comparable gingival recession, lower impact on tooth hypersensitivity, and less pain during the procedure than other methods.