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August 2023 Literature Review

Laser Literature Review

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences.

Saboo et al1 published an article on the evaluation of the permeability of different desensitizing methods on occlusion of dentinal tubules. The design of the experiment was: Group I: Control, Group II: Samples received NaF 5% varnish treatment, Group III: Samples received diode laser treatment, and Group IV: Samples received CPP-ACP treatment. An SEM was used to inspect each specimen at a magnification of about * 3000 and photomicrographs were assessed. They concluded that all three desensitizing methods used in the study were successful in the occlusion of dentin tubules, but the application of the Diode laser was the most effective.

Satsh and coworkers2 published a comparative evaluation of fibrin network formation after root conditioning using Erbium, Chromium-Doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium and Garnet laser, Ethylene-Diamine-Tetra-Acetic Acid, and Tetracycline on Dentin in a scanning electron microscopic study. They concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser-treated samples presented complete elimination of smear layer, formation of fibrin network, and BCA along with desensitizing effect for a better reduction in dentin hypersensitivity.

El-Angbawi et al3 published an article on non-surgical interventions for accelerating tooth movement in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Their conclusion was that:

The evidence from randomised controlled trials concerning the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions to accelerate orthodontic treatment is of low to very low certainty. It suggests that there is no additional benefit of light vibrational forces or photobiomodulation for reducing the duration of orthodontic treatment. Although there may be a limited benefit from photobiomodulation application for accelerating discrete treatment phases, these results have to be interpreted with caution due to their questionable clinical significance.

Xailani, Kocher K and Hamad, Shehab A4 evaluated the effects of photobiomodulation therapy on bone formation around implants by measuring the implant removal torque and implant stability quotient. The study was performed on sheep and the implant-removal torque was determined with an electronic wrench, and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) was assessed with an Ostell device. They concluded that photobiomodulation enhances bone formation and improves implant stability in implants with overzealously prepared oversized implant beds.

Khali et al5 published a study examining implant surface topography following different laser treatments. They found that the application of Er,Cr:YSGG, 650-nm diode laser, and 808-nm diode did not show melting changes on implant topography. However, some increase in surface roughness was detected. Further studies are recommended to assess the effectiveness of these laser settings on bacterial reduction and osseointegration.

Gunguz and coworkers6 published an article on the effects of laser and ultrasonic irrigation activated methods on smear layer and debris removal in endodontic access cavities. They found that significantly fewer smears were detected in the laser activation group than in the ultrasonic activation and control groups.

Leuke et al7 published a review confirming that the use of lasers could enhance the clinical outcome as well as the quality of life of dental patients, and that laser effects were more significant in the domain of postoperative pain.

Kelkar and coworkers8 published a prospective cohort study on the effect of low-level laser therapy on post-extraction hemostasis in patients with hemophilia due to its ability to seal vessels, but this function has not been conclusively established in hemophiliac patients.

Rajan et al 9 published an evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound versus photodynamic therapy against enterococcus faecalis infected root canals and found that it was an alternative to the current gold standard of 4% NaOCl and PDT.

Saran and coworkers10 published an article on the use of lasers as a tool for surface modification of dental materials. They found that Lasers can alter the surface characteristics of dental biomaterials by creating innovative surface patterns without significantly affecting their bulk properties. With advances in laser technology and availability of newer wavelengths and modes, laser as a tool for surface modification of dental biomaterials is a promising field, with excellent potential for future research.

Meng and coworkers11 published an article evaluating dentinal tubule occlusion and pulpal tissue response after using a 980-nm diode laser for dentinal hypersensitivity treatment and found that the 980-nm laser at a power of 0.8 W with 10s*2 defines the best treatment for dentin hypersensitivity in terms of compromise between the efficacy of the treatment and the safety of the pulp.

Shakya et al12 compared the different modes of cavity preparation while evaluating the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on dentine before bonding in terms of shear bond strength between composite resin and dentine. They found that cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser leads to reduced shear bond strength to adhesive restorative materials when compared with that using burs and high-speed handpiece.

Bourbour and coworkers13 published a study on the effects of antimicrobial photosensitizers of photodynamic therapy to treat periodontitis. The survey focused on the effectiveness and mechanism of aPDT of periodontitis by using lasers and the most frequently used antimicrobial PSs such as methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue ortho (TBO), indocyanine green (ICG), Malachite green (MG) (Triarylmethanes), Erythrosine Dyes (ERY) (Xanthenes dyes), Rose bengal (RB) (Xanthenes dyes), Eosin-Y (Xanthenes dyes), Radachlorin group and Curcumin. Th

They found that aPDT with these photosensitizers can reduce pathogenic bacterial loads in periodontitis.


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