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January 2023 Literature Review

Laser Literature Review

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, and Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD)

Wenyan et al1 published a review of the impact of Er:YAG laser combined with fluoride treatment on the supragingival plaque microbiome in children with multiple caries and found that the combined application of the Er:YAG laser and fluoride may be more effective than using fluoride alone in reducing the proportion of cariogenic bacteria, increasing the diversity of plaque microorganisms, and further promoting the microecological balance.

Wozniak and coworkers2 published a review of the literature on the effectiveness of lasers and Apdt in the elimination of halitosis. They found that laser therapy (aPDT, Er,Cr:YSGG) effectively eliminates microorganisms that produce volatile compounds and can eliminate bad breath for the longer period of time than traditional methods of combatting this ailment.

Niazi et al3 published an interesting article on the assessment of normal and cancerous skin tissues based on laser induced spectral shift fluorescence microscopy which may be of interest.

The abstract is reproduced in full.

A homemade spectral shift fluorescence microscope (SSFM) is coupled with a spectrometer to record the spectral images of specimens based on the emission wavelength. Here a reliable diagnosis of neoplasia is achieved according to the spectral fluorescence properties of ex-vivo skin tissues after rhodamine6G (Rd6G) staining. It is shown that certain spectral shifts occur for nonmelanoma/melanoma lesions against normal/benign nevus, leading to spectral micrographs. In fact, there is a strong correlation between the emission wavelength and the sort of skin lesions, mainly due to the Rd6G interaction with the mitochondria of cancerous cells. The normal tissues generally enjoy a significant red shift regarding the laser line (37nm). Conversely, plenty of fluorophores are conjugated to unhealthy cells giving rise to a relative blue shift i.e., typically SCC (6nm), BCC (14nm), and melanoma (19nm) against healthy tissues. In other words, the redshift takes place with respect to the excitation wavelength i.e., melanoma (18nm), BCC (23nm), and SCC (31nm) with respect to the laser line. Consequently, three data sets are available in the form of micrographs, addressing pixel-by-pixel signal intensity, emission wavelength, and fluorophore concentration of specimens for prompt diagnosis.

Shakoush and coworkers4 carried out a randomized, controlled, split-mouth trial to clarify the clinical efficacy of using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to open flap debridement (OFD) in the treatment of periodontitis. Their conclusion was that it improved the clinical indices, postoperative pain, and dentinal hypersensitivity better than OFD alone in the treatment of Stage III periodontitis.

Camolesi et al5 published a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effect of diode laser photobiomodulation (PBM) on post-surgical healing, inflammation and implant stability. They concluded that the application of 808 nm infra-red laser for bone tissue, and 630 nm for mucosal tissue in two sessions was considered to be an effective way of reducing inflammation and improving early healing.

Ersan and coworkers6 evaluated the effects of erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er, Cr:YSGG) laser disinfection, casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) containing paste and sodium hypochlorite application before the placement of a resin-based pit and fissure sealant on the shear bond strength of primary tooth enamel. They found that the groups where sodium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite with CPP-ACP were applied showed the lowest bond strength (p < 0.05). It was observed that most of the failures in these groups were adhesive-type failures. No significant difference was observed between the shear bond strengths of the other groups (p < 0.05). Their conclusion was that Er, Cr: YSGG laser and CPP-ACP containing paste are alternative methods for pre-application of fissure sealants. Namour et al7 published a retrospective study,with data for three different laser-assisted approaches for the management of dentinal hypersensitivity. In total, 387 teeth were treated with photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy with 660 nm red light laser (PBM group), 327 were treated with the Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and 206 were treated with the Nd:YAP laser (1340 nm). They showed that PBM therapy and irradiation with Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP lasers are effective in managing DH pain. However, PBM therapy was the only procedure that showed complete pain relief at six and twelve months after treatment. Ruiz and coworkers8 published a review evaluating the effect of photobiomodulation as a therapeutic alternative for atrophic-erosive lesions. They concluded that it was a treatment that competently combats oral lichen planus lesions by improving signs and symptoms, with no known adverse reactions so far, which makes it more beneficial compared with more conventional therapies, such as corticosteroids, for which side effects have been found.

References: 1. Wenyan, Huang; Pujue, Zheng; (...); Sujuan, Zeng. The impact of Er:YAG laser combined with fluoride treatment on the supragingival plaque microbiome in children with multiple caries: a dynamic study. 2022-11-24 | BMC oral health 22 (1) , pp.537. 2. Wozniak, Agnieszka; Matys, Jacek and Grzech-Lesniak, Kinga. Effectiveness of lasers and aPDT in elimination of intraoral halitosis: a systematic review based on clinical trials. Lasers in medical science 37 (9) , 2022-dec . pp.3403-3411.

3. Niazi, A; Parvin, P; (...); Moafi, A. Discrimination of normal and cancerous human skin tissues based on laser-induced spectral shift fluorescence microscopy. 2022-12-03. Scientific reports 12 (1) , pp.20927 4. Shakoush, Ghena; Albonni, Hala and Almahdi, Wael. Low-level laser therapy has an additional effect with open flap debridement on the treatment of stage III periodontitis. A split-mouth randomized clinical trial. Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985) 0 (0) , 2022-dec-12 pp.1-31.

5. Camolesi, Gisela C V; Somoza-Martin, Jose Manuel; (...); Perez Sayans, Mario. Photobiomodulation in dental implant stability and post-surgical healing and inflammation. A randomised double-blind study-c-21Clinical Oral Implants research.

6. Ersan, Z; Yazicioglu, I; (...); Dogan, M C. The effects of disinfection with Er, Cr:YSGG laser, application of CPP-ACP and sodium hypochlorite on shear bond strength. Nigerian journal of clinical practice 25 (12) , pp.1949-1954. 2022-dec . 7. Nammour, Samir; El Mobadder, Marwan; (...); Namour, Amaury. Twelve-Month Follow-Up of Different Dentinal Hypersensitivity Treatments by Photobiomodulation Therapy, Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP Lasers. Life (Basel, Switzerland) 12 (12). 2022-11-30.

8. Ruiz Roca, Juan Antonio; Lopez Jornet, Pia; (...); Marcos Aroca, Paula. Effect of Photobiomodulation on Atrophic-Erosive Clinical Forms of Oral Lichen Planus: A Systematic Review. Dentistry journal 10 (12. 2022-11-27.

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