Laser Lit Review August 2019

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).


Huang et al1 published an article on enhancing osteoblast functions on biofilm-contaminated titanium alloy by concentration-dependent use of methylene blue-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.


The abstract is reproduced in full.


The concentration of methylene blue (MB) photosensitizer could affect the eradication efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of contaminated implants, which is linked to the sseointegration of the implant. This was the first report of evaluating osteoblast functions on the contaminated SLA (sandblasting, large-grit and acid-etching) Ti alloy surfaces after the concentration-dependent use of MB-aPDT. Totally 1,164 SLA discs were randomly distributed for the analyses of antibacterial efficacy and osteoblast functions. Gram-negative (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; A. actinomycetemcomitans) or Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans; S. mutans) adhered on disc samples was subjected to aPDT with different MB concentrations (200, 250, 300, 350, and 400mug/mL) using 660nm diode laser with maximum output 80mW for 1min irradiation (4.8J/cm2). Bactericidal effect was examined by viability, morphology, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assays. The disinfe cted disc surfaces by MB-aPDT to support osteoblast-like MG63 attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization were assessed for the predetermined culture time intervals. The statistical differences between the means were performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a post hoc Scheffe test. The results of the morphology observation and bacterial survival examination consistently indicated a remarkably lower quantity of bacterial colonies on biofilm-contaminated surfaces after the aPDT treatment with higher MB concentration. Similarly, the higher MB concentration in aPDT resulted in the lower LPS amounts remaining on the A. actinomycetemcomitans-contaminated surfaces. Intriguingly, the expression of osteoblast cultured on disinfected surfaces using aPDT with higher MB concentration was comparable to the control without contamination. Within the limits of this in vitro model, this formulation of 400mug/mL MB used in aPDT may be not only the lethal concentration against the 2 bacteria-contaminated implants, but it could also enhance the osteoblast functions on the contaminated implants. Nevertheless, the efficacy in the clinical practice for peri-implantitis therapy remains to be studied.


Seraj and coworkers2 published a study to evaluate the temperature increase of the external surface of primary roots due to the application of 810 nm and 980 nm diode lasers. They found that these diode lasers should be used cautiously in primary root canals because of the temperature rise during their application.


Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly developing technology that has gained widespread acceptance in dentistry. Kessler et al3 published a review of this technology. The abstract is reproduced in full.


Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly developing technology that has gained widespread acceptance in dentistry. Compared to conventional (lost-wax technique) and subtractive computer numeric controlled methods, 3D printing offers process engineering advantages. Materials such as plastics, metals, and ceramics can be manufactured using various techniques. 3D printing was introduced over three decades ago. Today, it is experiencing rapid development due to the expiration of many patents and is often described as the key technology of the next industrial revolution. The transition to its clinical application in dentistry is highly dependent on the available materials, which must not only provide the required accuracy but also the necessary biological and physical properties. The aim of this work is to provide an up-to-date overview of the different printing techniques: stereolithography, digital light processing, photopolymer jetting, material jetting, binder jetting, sel ective laser sintering, selective laser melting, and fused filament fabrication. Additionally, particular attention is paid to the materials used in dentistry and their clinical application.


Given that Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is a bacterium that colonizes in the mouth and is a common cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases, and is a bacterium which comprises 70% of the bacteria in dental plaque, it would be useful to find methods which can be used to control it. Azizi and coworkers4 published a paper investigating the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using curcumin (CUR) and methylene blue (MB) photosensitizers on S. mutans. They concluded that MB- and CUR-mediated PDT could significantly eradicate S. mutans colonies.


The employability of the non-invasive femtosecond laser ablation technique for dental treatment has been severely limited by its low ablation rate despite the advantage of minimal tissue damage. Loganathan et al5 published a study exploring a means of improving the femtosecond laser ablation rate and efficiency by physiochemical surface modification.


AlFawaz and coworkers6 published a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of phototherapy in the adhesive bonding of different dental posts to root dentin. They found that the dentin to post bond strength was significantly enhanced by phototherapy using wavelengths of diode lasers ranging from 660 to 2940 nanometres (nm), and power ranging from 0.075W to 3W.


Soliman et al7 estimated the pain-relieving and healing properties of low energy level laser therapy using diode laser 660 nm on Minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. They concluded that the diode laser 660 nm treatment showed more remarkable improvements in reduction of healing time, pain and lesion size than the placebo group which received the sodium bicarbonate rinse.


Fried et al8 published a study to determine if image-guided laser ablation can be used to selectively remove calculus from tooth surfaces with minimal damage to the underlying sound cementum and dentin. Sequential near-IR images at 1500-1700nm were used to guide a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser for the removal of the calculus and they found that this laser is well suited for this purpose.


Oliveira and coworkers9 evaluated the bond strength of repairs made on composite resin following the treatment of the surface of the flaw with different bonding agents and/or CO2 laser. They found that the application of CO2 laser as a surface treatment led to greater bond strength of composite resin repairs in comparison with the groups that only received treatment with a burr and silanization. The groups submitted to CO2 laser also had a significantly lower number of adhesive failures when submitted to the microtraction test.

Alagl et al10 designed an in vitro study to evaluate implant surface decontamination by means of Er,Cr:YSGG and diode lasers and concluded that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be considered as an effective technique for reducing bacteria contamination on implant surfaces.


Isola and coworkers11 evaluated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by means of a diode laser in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement in a randomized clinical trial and concluded that the use of LLLT therapy was effective in accelerating tooth movement and reducing pain levels.


Mehdiyev and coworkers12 published a study to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone healing in patients undergoing bilateral sinus lifting and simultaneous dental implant application. They found that LLLT enhanced bone regeneration in sinus augmentation with simultaneous dental implant placement.

Luk et al13 published a review article on the use of CO2 lasers in dentistry which members may find of interest.


Also in the same journal is an article on the use of lasers in the treatment of periodontitis by Liebaug14.


And again in the same journal, Engeleke and co-authors15 published an article on peri-implant bone regeneration through laser decontamination.


Nemeth and coworkers16 conducted a randomized study to elucidate on how photobiomodulation of major salivary glands with polychromatic light or LED light affects caries risk factors in high caries-risk patients. They found that it can reduce the cariogenic bacteria in saliva and improve some salivary parameters, thus reducing caries risk.

Singh17 evaluated the effect of photobiomodulation in reducing postoperative side effects after surgical removal of mandibular third molars and concluded that photobiomodulation is effective in reducing pain and swelling after mandibular third molar surgery. Hence, it can be used as an alternative and effective modality after surgical removal of mandibular third molars, thereby improving the quality of life of the patients.

Jagtap et al18 published a study to evaluate the effect of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in reducing the pain due to local anesthetic injection. They concluded that it reduced pain during injection of local anesthesia.


REFERENCES

1. Huang, Tsun-Chin; Chen, Chun-Ju; Chen, Chun-Cheng; Ding, Shinn-Jyh. Enhancing osteoblast functions on biofilm-contaminated titanium alloy by concentration-dependent use of methylene blue-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.05.021 2019-May-19.

2. Seraj, Bahman; Moosavi Garmaroodi, Zahra; Chiniforush, Nasim; Ghadimi, Sara. Thermal Changes in Root Surface of Primary Teeth During Root Canal Treatment With Diode Lasers: An In Vitro Study. Journal of lasers in medical sciences, 9 (4):237-242; 10.15171/jlms.2018.43 2018.

3. Kessler, A; Hickel, R; Reymus, M. 3D Printing in Dentistry-State of the Art. Operative dentistry, 10.2341/18-229-L 2019-Jun-07.

4. Azizi, Arash; Shohrati, Parastoo; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Lawaf, Shirin; Rahimi, Arash. Comparison of the Effect of Photodynamic Therapy with Curcumin and Methylene Blue on Streptococcus mutans Bacterial Colonies. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.06.002 2019-Jun-05.

5. Loganathan, Sarathkumar; Santhanakrishnan, Soundarapandian; Bathe, Ravi; Arunachalam, Muthukumaraswamy. Surface Processing: An Elegant Way to Enhance the Femtosecond Laser Ablation Rate and Ablation Efficiency on Human Teeth. Lasers in surgery and medicine, 10.1002/lsm.23105 2019-Jun-05.

6. AlFawaz, Yasser F; Alonaizan, Faisal Abdullah. Efficacy of phototherapy in the adhesive bonding of different dental posts to root dentin: A systematic review. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.05.024 2019-May-27.

7. Soliman, Hisham Abdelmonem; Mostafaa, Diana. Clinical Evaluation of 660 nm Diode Laser Therapy on the Pain, Size and Functional Disorders of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis. Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences, 7 (9):1516-1522; 10.3889/oamjms.2019.268 2019-May-15.

8. Fried, William A; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Curtis, Donald A; Fried, Daniel. Image-Guided Ablation of Dental Calculus From Root Surfaces Using a DPSS Er:YAG Laser. Lasers in surgery and medicine, 10.1002/lsm.23122 2019-Jun-24.

9. Oliveira, Pedro Henrique Cabral; Oliveira, Luiz Henrique Cabral; Cabral, Marcia Regina; De Vito Moraes, Andre Guaraci; Sgura, Ricardo; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Goncalves, Marcela Leticia Leal; Brugnera Junior, Aldo; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil. Effect of Surface Treatment with CO2 Laser on Bond Strength in Composite Resin Restorations. Photobiomodulation, photomedicine, and laser surgery, 37 (7):428-433; 10.1089/photob.2018.4534 2019-Jul.

10. Alagl, Adel S; Madi, Marwa; Bedi, Sumit; Al Onaizan, Faisal; Al-Aql, Zainab S. The Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG and Diode Laser Applications on Dental Implant Surfaces Contaminated with Acinetobacter Baumannii and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 12 (13):10.3390/ma12132073 2019 Jun 27.

11. Isola, Gaetano; Matarese, Marco; Briguglio, Francesco; Grassia, Vincenzo; Picciolo, Giacomo; Fiorillo, Luca; Matarese, Giovanni. Effectiveness of Low-Level Laser Therapy during Tooth Movement: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 12 (13):10.3390/ma12132187 2019 Jul 08.

12. Mehdiyev, Ilham; Gulsen, Ugur; Senturk, Mehmet Fatih; Sayan, Nejat Bora. Radiographic Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy-Enhanced Maxillary Sinus Augmentation with Simultaneous Dental Implant Placement. Annals of maxillofacial surgery, 9 (1):48-52; 10.4103/ams.ams_241_18 2019 Jan-Jun.

13. Luk, Zhao, Gutknecht, Chu. Use of carbon dioxide lasers in dentistry. Laser, international magazine of laser dentistry. Pages 6-11. Vol 11, issue 2/2019.

14. Liebaug. Initial therapy of periodontitis using dental lasers. Laser international magazine of laser dentistry. Pages 12-17. Vol 11, issue 2/2019.

15. Engelke, Engeleke, Beltran, Lazzarini. Peri-implant bone regeneration through laser decontamination. Endoscopic paracrestal tunnel technique. Laser international magazine of laser dentistry. Pages 24-29. Vol 11, issue 2/2019.

16. Nemeth, Lidija; Groselj, Maja; Golez, Aljaz; Arhar, Ana; Frangez, Igor; Cankar, Ksenija. The impact of photobiomodulation of major salivary glands on caries risk. Lasers in medical science, 10.1007/s10103-019-02845-x 2019-Jul-19.

17. Singh, Virendra; Garg, Ashish; Bhagol, Amrish; Savarna; Agarwal, Santosh Kumar. Photobiomodulation Alleviates Postoperative Discomfort After Mandibular Third Molar Surgery. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, 10.1016/j.joms.2019.06.009 2019-Jun-24.

18. Jagtap, Bhagyashree; Bhate, Kalyani; Magoo, Surabhi; S N, Santhoshkumar; Gajendragadkar, Kunal Suhas; Joshi, Sagar. Painless injections-a possibility with low level laser therapy. Journal of dental anesthesia and pain medicine, 19 (3):159-165; 10.17245/jdapm.2019.19.3.159 2019-Jun.

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