Laser Lit Review Decemer 2018

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).


Ferreira et al1 analyzed the effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on the proliferation and undifferentiating status of stem cell from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. They concluded that PBMT increased the number of stem cells with no interference in the undifferentiated state of the irradiated cells, which opens wide possibilities for application in tissue regeneration.


Sinaee and coworkers2 evaluated the effect of diode laser on the nanomechanical properties of enamel in the process of debonding the ceramic brackets and found that the diode laser with either 1W or 3W power for 3 s is effective in debonding the ceramic brackets without any detrimental effect on the pulp or mechanical properties of enamel.


Drost et al3 compared current light curing sources with a blue diode laser regarding curing depth and heat generation during the polymerization process. A diode laser (445nm), a LED, and a halogen lamp were used for polymerizing composite resins. They found that the blue diode laser (445nm) is a feasible alternative for photopolymerization of complex composite resin restorations in dentistry by the use of selected laser parameters.


Femiano and coworkers4 evaluated the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on dental pain felt during cavity preparation of carious lesions in permanent teeth of adults and found that dental treatment could be more comfortable by using a preliminary phase of low-power lasers, limiting or eliminating pharmacological agents for pain control.


Onay et al5 assessed the cervical microleakage of Class II resin composite restorations in endodontically treated teeth following either the respective conventional conditioning or additional Er:YAG laser conditioning, in association with varied adhesives. Their findings were that the use of laser was at least as good as standard methods and in some cases better than the standard methods.


Prabhakar and coworkers6 compared the morphological changes and bacterial deposits in primary carious molars after caries excavation with Carie-Care, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, and a round tungsten carbide bur. Their findings were that laser-induced caries excavation using the Er:YAG laser and chemomechanical method of caries removal by Carie-Care can be considered as future of noninvasive pediatric and preventive dentistry.


Perveen et al7 published a review of the use of laser welding in dentistry. The abstract is reproduced in full.


The dental industry without lasers is inconceivable right now. This captivating technology has outlasted other possible alternative technologies applied in dentistry in the past due to its precision, accuracy, minimal invasive effect as well as faster operating time. Other alternatives such as soldering, resistance (spot) welding, plasma (torch) welding, and single pulse tungsten inert gas welding have their pros and cons; nevertheless, laser welding remains the most suitable option so far for dental application. This paper attempts to give an insight into the laser principle and types of lasers used for dental purposes, types of dental alloys used by the dentist, and effect of laser parameters on prosthesis/implants. It is apparent from the literature review that laser assisted dental welding will continue to grow and will become an unparalleled technology for the dental arena.


Serdar-Eymirli and coworkers8 carried out an in vitro study to determine the effect of different remineralization agents and laser on caries resistance of primary enamel. They studied NaF, APF, fluoride varnish (FV), CPP-ACP, laser (L), L + NaF, L + APF, L + FV, L + CPP-ACP. Their conclusions were that FV is more effective when used in combination with laser than laser alone. NaF, CPP-ACP, and laser may be insufficient in protecting the primary teeth against acid attacks compared to FV used with laser.


REFERENCES

1. Ferreira, L S; Diniz, I M A; Maranduba, C M S; Miyagi, S P H; Rodrigues, M F S D; Moura-Netto, C; Marques, Marcia Martins. Short-term evaluation of photobiomodulation therapy on the proliferation and undifferentiated status of dental pulp stem cells. Lasers in medical science, 10.1007/s10103-018-2637-z 2018-Sep-24.

2. Sinaee, Neda; Salahi, Sasan; Sheikhi, Mostafa. Evaluation of the effect of diode laser for debonding ceramic brackets on nanomechanical properties of enamel. Dental research journal, 15 (5):354-360; 2018 Sep-Oct.

3. Drost, Thomas; Reimann, Susanne; Frentzen, Matthias; Meister, Jorg. Effectiveness of photopolymerization in composite resins using a novel 445-nm diode laser in comparison to LED and halogen bulb technology. Lasers in medical science, 10.1007/s10103-018-2651-1 2018-Oct-06.

4. Femiano, Felice; Femiano, Rossella; Femiano, Luigi; Aresu, Giuliano; Festa, Vicenzo Maria; Rullo, Rosario; Perillo, Letizia. Effectiveness of low-level diode laser therapy on pain during cavity preparation on permanent teeth. American journal of dentistry, 31 (5):267-271; 2018-Oct.

5. Onay, Emel-Olga; Yamanel, Kivanc; Korkmaz-Ceyhan, Yonca; Gulsahi, Kamran. Comparison of three adhesive systems in class II composite restorations in endodontically treated teeth: Influence of Er:YAG laser conditioning and gingival margin levels on microleakage. Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry, 10 (8):e781-e788; 10.4317/jced.54843 2018-Aug.

6. Prabhakar, Attiguppe; Lokeshwari, Manjunath; Naik, Saraswathi V; Yavagal, Chandrashekar. Efficacy of Caries Removal by Carie-Care and Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser in Primary Molars: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study. International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry, 11 (4):323-329; 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1533 2018 Jul-Aug.

7. Perveen, Asma; Molardi, Carlo; Fornaini, Carlo. Applications of Laser Welding in Dentistry: A State-of-the-Art Review. Micromachines, 9 (5):10.3390/mi9050209 2018 Apr 28.

8. Serdar-Eymirli, Pinar; Turgut, M D; Dolgun, A; Yazici, A R. The effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser, fluoride, and CPP-ACP on caries resistance of primary enamel. Lasers in medical science, 10.1007/s10103-018-2667-6 2018-Nov-16.

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