Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).
Alencar et al1 carried out a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical study to assess the efficacy of low-level laser therapy combined with 5000 ppm fluoride dentifrice on postbleaching sensitivity in teeth exposed to 35% hydrogen peroxide for four weeks. They concluded that teeth treated with laser therapy in combination with the topical use of sodium fluoride at each bleaching session demonstrated less sensitivity compared with the application of sodium fluoride only.
Borekci and coworkers2 carried out a study whose aim was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of adjunctive photodynamic therapy in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis. They found the use of PDT as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal treatment does not lead to any beneficial effects on the investigated clinical and microbiological parameters except for the scaling and bleeding index (SBI). Nevertheless, the statistically significant difference for the SBI score demonstrates that PDT may have an additional effect in the reduction in gingival bleeding.
Bittencourt et al3 conducted a study with the aim of searching for scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of laser to reduce pain or paresthesia related to orthognathic surgery. Their findings were that the individual studies suggested a positive effect of low-level laser therapy on reduction of postoperative pain and acceleration of improvement of paresthesia related to orthognathic surgery.
Abohabib and coworkers4 designed a study to investigate the effect of low-intensity laser therapy on mini-implant stability using resonance frequency analysis during canine retraction with fixed appliances. They concluded that despite evidence of some significant differences in resonance frequency between mini-implants exposed to low-intensity laser light over a 10 week period there were no differences in mini-implant stability. Low-intensity laser light cannot be recommended as a clinically useful adjunct to promoting mini-implant stability during canine retraction.
Memarian et al5 carried out a study to evaluate the effect of low level laser (LLL) and light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation on implant stability as well as their effect on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biomarkers around implants in the lower anterior region in relation to over dentures. They concluded that the use of LLL or LED has a positive effect on the stability of the implants 3 weeks after surgery.
Lin and coworkers6 published a review whose aim was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of laser therapy with non-surgical or surgical therapy in managing peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.
Their conclusion was that lasers provided only a minimum benefit in the management these conditions.
Chambrone et al7 published a best evidence review evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), as an adjunct to non-surgical or surgical therapy, on clinical and patient-centered outcomes in patients with periodontitis or peri-implantitis. Their conclusions were that it may provide similar clinical improvements compared with conventional periodontal therapy for both periodontitis and peri-implantitis patients.
Matarese and coworkers8 investigated and compared the clinical, microbial, and inflammatory effects of a diode laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) versus SRP alone for the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Their conclusion was that at 1 year, SRP+diode laser yielded a significant reduction in some clinical parameters, while microbial and inflammatory mediator changes were not significantly reduced compared to SRP alone.
Hou et al9 evaluated whether Er:YAG laser etching could be an alternative surface treatment to hydrofluoric (HF) acid etching. Their results showed that Er:YAG laser had little impact on Vita Mark II and Vita Enamic; but proper power settings could be an alternative surface treatment to HF acid etching (600mJ for IPS Empress CAD and 400mJ for IPS e.max CAD).
Abrams and coworkers10 evaluated the ability of visual examination (International Caries Detection and Assessment System-ICDAS II), light-emitting diodes (LED) fluorescence (SPECTRA), laser fluorescence (DIAGNODent, DD), photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence (PTR-LUM, The Canary System, CS) to detect natural decay beneath resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) and compomer restorations in vitro. They found that the CS has the potential to detect secondary caries around RMGIC and compomer restorations more accurately than the other modalities used in this study.
Terra Garcia et al11 evaluated the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Streptococcus mutans biofilms using two second-generation Photosensitizers derived from chlorin: Photoditazine (PDZ) and Fotoenticine (FTC). These were compared to methylene blue (MB), a dye with proven antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. They conclded that PDT mediated by chlorin-type PS exhibited greater antimicrobial activity against S. mutans than MB-mediated PDT, indicating that these PS can be useful for the control of dental caries.
Braun and coworkers12 investigated differences in the amount of dentin microcracking caused by the use of a 970-nm diode laser with different parameters for endodontic disinfection procedures. They concluded that the clinically proposed laser protocol seemed to be able to prevent side effects to the tissue, such as microcracks of the root canal dentine.
1. Alencar, Cristiane De Melo; De Paula, Brennda Lucy Freitas; Araujo, Jesuina Lamartine Nogueira; Alves, Eliane Bemerguy; De Albuquerque Jasse, Fernanda Ferreira; Silva, Cecy Martins. Effect of low-level laser therapy combined with 5000 parts per million fluoride dentifrice on postbleaching sensitivity: A clinical, randomized, and double-blind study. Journal of esthetic and restorative dentistry : official publication of the American Academy of Esthetic Dentistry ... [et al.], 10.1111/jerd.12386 2018-Aug-06.
2. Borekci, Tugce; Meseli, Suleyman Emre; Noyan, Ulku; Kuru, Bahar Eren; Kuru, Leyla. Efficacy of adjunctive photodynamic therapy in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Lasers in surgery and medicine, 10.1002/lsm.23010 2018-Aug-10.
3. Bittencourt, M-A-V; Paranhos, L-R; Martins-Filho, P-R-S. Low-level laser therapy for treatment of neurosensory disorders after orthognathic surgery: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal, 22 (6):780-787; 10.4317/medoral.21968 2017 Nov 01.
4. Abohabib, Ahmed Mohamed; Fayed, Mona Mohamed; Labib, Amr H. Effects of low-intensity laser therapy on the stability of orthodontic mini-implants: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Journal of orthodontics, 45 (3):149-156; 10.1080/14653125.2018.1481710 2018-Sep.
5. Memarian, Jafar; Ketabi, Mohammad; Amini, Shahram. The effect of low-level laser 810 nm and light-emitting diode photobiomodulation (626 nm) on the stability of the implant and inflammatory markers interleukin-1 beta and prostaglandin E2, around implants. Dental research journal, 15 (4):283-288; 2018 Jul-Aug.
6. Lin, Guo-Hao; Suarez Lopez Del Amo, Fernando; Wang, Hom-Lay. Laser therapy for treatment of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis: An American Academy of Periodontology best evidence review. Journal of periodontology, 89 (7):766-782; 10.1902/jop.2017.160483 2018-Jul.
7. Chambrone, Leandro; Wang, Hom-Lay; Romanos, Georgios E. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for the treatment of periodontitis and peri-implantitis: An American Academy of Periodontology best evidence review. Journal of periodontology, 89 (7):783-803; 10.1902/jop.2017.170172 2018-Jul.
8. Matarese, Giovanni; Ramaglia, Luca; Ciccio, Marco; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Isola, Gaetano. The Effects of Diode Laser Therapy as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Aggressive Periodontitis: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 35 (12):702-709; 10.1089/pho.2017.4288 2017-Dec .
9. Hou, Yepo; Shen, Renze; Chen, Luyuan; Chen, Yi; Jiang, Yingtong; Li, JingMei; Gao, Jie. Shear Bond Strength of Different CAD/CAM Ceramics: Acid vs Er:YAG Laser Etching. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 10.1089/pho.2018.4475 2018-Sep-18.
10. Abrams, Tamara; Abrams, Stephen; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran; Moravan, Veronika; Hellen, Warren; Elman, Gary; Amaechi, Bennett; Mandelis, Andreas. Detection of Caries Around Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer and Compomer Restorations Using Four Different Modalities In Vitro. Dentistry journal, 6 (3):10.3390/dj6030047 2018 Sep 16.
11. Terra Garcia, Maira; Correia Pereira, Andre Henrique; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Strixino, Juliana Ferreira; Junqueira, Juliana Campos. Photodynamic Therapy mediated by chlorin-type photosensitizers against Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.08.012 2018-Aug-26 .
12. Braun, Andreas; Hagelauer, Frederic Jean-Pierre; Wenzler, Johannes; Heimer, Matthias; Frankenberger, Roland; Stein, Steffen. Microcrack Analysis of Dental Hard Tissue After Root Canal Irradiation with a 970-nm Diode Laser. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 10.1089/pho.2018.4470 2018-Sep-27.