Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).
Kirpalani et al1 published an article on the use of both the laser and Piezo instruments which are unique devices that can offer the clinician certain advantages that may prove beneficial in the treatment of his or her patients which the readers may find of interest.
Sharifi and coworkers2 investigated the effect of photobiomodulation on the recovery of neurosensory function of the lip and chin after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). Laser irradiation was applied with a GaAs diode laser (continuous wave 980nm wavelength, power 100mW, and energy density 12J/cm2) and found a significant improvement with no side effects.
Dominguez Camacho, et al3 compared the effect on post-surgical oedema after mandibular orthognathic surgery, between two different laser power densities and oral medication with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. Two groups were irradiated with two different laser application protocols and the other was a control group. In G1 group the irradiation parameters three times per week for two weeks were: 940nm, in continuous mode, 2.5W, 120s, 85.71J/cm2, 0.89W/cm2, over the right and left side with a distance from the skin surface of 1mm with the whitening handpiece (spot size of 2.8cm2). In G2, the irradiation parameters three times a week for two weeks were: 940nm, in continuous mode, 4.1W, 120s, 68.33J/cm2, 0.58W/cm2 over the right and left side with a distance from the skin surface of 15mm, with the deep tissue handpiece (spot size of 7.1cm2). In all the groups, millimetric facial measurements were taken from tragus to lateral commissure, and from lateral commissure to gonion in both sides.
The faster resolution of the oedema occurred in G2 group. PTBM with an energy density of 68.33J/cm2 was the most effective adjuvant to oral medication with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, to decrease post-surgical oedema after mandibular orthognathic surgery.
John and coworkers4 compared and evaluated pain and healing following orthodontic extraction using Low Level Laser Therapy and Cryotherapy and concluded that Low Level Laser Therapy was superior to Cryotherapy.
Kaleli et al5 evaluated the intaglio surface adaptation of laser-sintered cobalt-chromium single-crown frameworks sintered at laser scanning speeds of 1, 3, and 6 m/s. Laser scan speed is an important parameter, which has a significant effect on manufacturing time but may also affect the adaptation of restorations.
They found that the amount of intaglio surface discrepancy increased when the laser scanning speed reached 6 m/s.
Kubasiewicz-Ross and coworkers6 evaluated the three methods of bacterial decontamination on implants with three different surfaces as implants with rough surfaces are more difficult to decontaminate. They found that the chemical - mechanical method of decontamination was better for SLA and machined surface implants and the Er:Yag laser was better for HA – coated implants.
Ren et al7 investigated the analgesic and inflammation-modulatory effects of low-level laser irradiation among orthodontic patients with compromised periodontium. They concluded that this treatment was beneficial for such patients.
Dhawan and coworkers8 carried out a study to compare the efficacy of erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and diode laser irradiation in smear layer removal and dentin permeability after biomechanical preparation using scanning electron microscopic investigation. Their conclusion was that the Er:YAG laser-activated root canal preparation (RCP) was comparatively efficient in cleaning the smear layer and dentinal tubules opening.
Pinto Faria and coworkers9 carried out a study to evaluate the effectiveness of low intensity laser therapy in the recovery of neurosensorial tissues after mandibular sagittal osteotomy during orthognathic surgery and concluded that this was an effective treatment with advantages over existing methods.
Terayama et al10 evaluated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) using an infrared laser (IRL) and a red laser (RL) on the pulp of molar teeth in rats after dental bleaching to assess inflammation, collagen fiber maturation, and tertiary dentin formation. They found that three consecutive applications of RL and one IRL application can minimize damage to the pulp of bleached teeth, whereas three IRL applications can minimize pulp fibrosis. However, LLLT did not prevent deposition of tertiary dentin.
Wang and coworkers11 carried out a pilot study to determine the efficacy of Er:YAG laser-assisted direct pulp capping in permanent teeth with cariously exposed pulp.
The abstract is reproduced in full.
Direct pulp capping is a minimally invasive method to preserve pulp integrity. We evaluated the treatment efficacy of Er:YAG laser irradiation combined with direct pulp capping for pulp exposure due to caries. A total of 21 patients with 22 teeth were enrolled in the conventional group (calcium hydroxide), and 24 patients with 25 teeth were enrolled in the laser-assisted group (Er:YAG laser irradiation at settings of 10Hz, 50mJ; combined with calcium hydroxide). The cumulative success rate of the conventional group and the laser-assisted group was 68.2% and 91.7% at 12months, respectively. Results showed that the laser-assisted procedure increased the survival time (beta=0.04, OR=0.07), while proximal-occlusal cavities in molars decreased the survival time (beta=0.03, OR=12.5). Er:YAG lasers improve the effectiveness of conventional direct pulp capping (using Dycal) with limited side-effects and can be applied clinically.
Bordea et al12 published a systemic review of various laser applications in root canal disinfection. They concluded that a combination of aPDT with antimicrobial irrigants could provide a synergetic effect.
1. Kirpalani, Tarun; Dym, Harry. Role of Piezo Surgery and Lasers in the Oral Surgery Office. Dental clinics of North America Volume:64 Issue:2 Pages:351-363 DOI:10.1016/j.cden.2019.12.007 Published: 2020-Apr (Epub 2020 Jan 22)..
2. Sharifi, R; Fekrazad, R; Taheri, M M; et al. .Effect of photobiomodulation on recovery from neurosensory disturbances after sagittal split ramus osteotomy: a triple-blind randomised controlled trial. The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery Published: 2020-Feb-28 (Epub 2020 Feb 28).
:Dominguez Camacho, Angela; Velasquez, Sergio Andres; Benjumea Marulanda, Neftali Joaquin; Moreno, Mauricio. International orthodontics Volume:18 Issue:1 Pages:69-78 DOI:10.1016/j.ortho.2019.09.004
Published: 2020-Mar (Epub 2019 Oct 31)
3. Dominguez Camacho, Angela; Velasquez, Sergio Andres; Benjumea Marulanda, Neftali Joaquin; et al. Photobiomodulation as oedema adjuvant in post-orthognathic surgery patients: A randomized clinical trial.
International orthodontics Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 69-78 Published: 2020-Mar (Epub 2019 Oct 31).
4. John, Sucratha Susie; Mohanty, Sujata; Chaudhary, Zainab; et al. Comparative evaluation of Low Level Laser Therapy and cryotherapy in pain control and wound healing following orthodontic tooth extraction: A double blind study. Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Published: 2020-Feb-04 (Epub 2020 Feb 04).
5. Kaleli, Necati; Ural, Cagri. Digital evaluation of laser scanning speed effects on the intaglio surface adaptation of laser-sintered metal frameworks. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry DOI:10.1016/j.prosdent.2019.12.020 Published: 2020-Mar-05 (Epub 2020 Mar 05).
6. Kubasiewicz-Ross, Pawel; Fleischer, Malgorzata; Pitulaj, Artur; et al.
Evaluation of the three methods of bacterial decontamination on implants with three different surfaces. Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University Volume: 29 Issue: 2. Pages: 177-182 Published: 2020-Feb.
7. Ren, Chong; McGrath, Colman; Gu, Min; .Low-level laser-aided orthodontic treatment of periodontally compromised patients: a randomised controlled trial. .Lasers in medical science Volume: 35 Issue: 3 Pages: 729-739 Published: 2020-Apr (Epub 2019 Dec 12).
8. Dhawan, Sapna; Jasuja, Purshottam; Khurana, Heena; Gakhar, Ekta; Singh, Harveen. A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet and diode lasers in smear layer removal and dentin permeability of root canal after biomechanical preparation - A scanning electron microscopy study. Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Volume:38 Issue:1 Pages:64-70. Published: 2020 Jan-Mar
9. Pinto Faria, Paulo E; Temprano, Astrid; Piva, Fabio; et al.
Low-level laser therapy for neurosensory recovery after sagittal ramus osteotomy. Minerva stomatologica Published: 2020-Mar-16.
10. Terayama, Amanda Miyuki; Benetti, Francine; de Araujo Lopes, Juliana Maria; et al. Influence of low-level laser therapy on inflammation, collagen fiber maturation, and tertiary dentin deposition in the pulp of bleached teeth. Clinical oral investigations Published: 2020-Mar-20 (Epub 2020 Mar 20).
11. Wang, Mengchen; Ma, Lin; Li, Qian; Yang, Wendong . Efficacy of Er:YAG laser-assisted direct pulp capping in permanent teeth with cariously exposed pulp: A pilot study. Australian endodontic journal : the journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc DOI:10.1111/aej.12404. Published: 2020-Mar-20 (Epub 2020 Mar 20).
12. Bordea, Ioana Roxana; Hanna, Reem; Chiniforush, Nasim; et al.Evaluation of the outcome of various laser therapy applications in root canal disinfection: A systematic review. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic Therapy Volume: 29 Pages: 101611 Published: 2020-Mar (Epub 2019 Dec 03).