Laser Literature Review - April 2021

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).


Kaplan et al1 carried out a study aimed to assess the effect of a 980-nm diode laser following chemomechanical root canal preparation on the severity of post-operative pain (PP) after root canal treatment (RCT). They concluded that was effective.


Costa and coworkers2 published an article on the use of lasers and Piezoelectric in intraoral surgery which the readers may find interesting. The abstract is reproduced in full.


Laser therapy has been delivering good results for more than 30years. Therapeutic effects are seen due to its ability to stimulate cell proliferation, revascularization, cell regeneration, local microcirculation, and vascular permeability; leading to edema reduction and analgesic effects. The piezoelectric system has been used in several surgeries recently, following the trend of minimally invasive surgery. The system consists of crystals undergoing deformation when exposed to electric current, resulting in an oscillating movement with ultrasound frequency. In oral surgery it is used in orthognathic and temporomandibular joint procedures, alveolar corticotomies, tumor excision, bone grafts, third molars, and dental implants.


: Parlar Oz et al3 investigated the effectiveness of different light activation methods for in-office bleaching agents in terms of color change durability and tooth sensitivity using a randomized clinical trial. They concluded that although all light activation techniques showed noticeable color changes, the conventional technique showed appreciable color change at the 6-month follow-up. Nd:YAG and diode laser activation can be preferable alternatives to LED and conventional activation in clinical practice as they bleach more and faster, decrease the number of sessions and chair time, and cause minimum sensitivity.


Liapis, and coworkers4 compared the intensity of post-operative pain after primary root canal treatment of asymptomatic teeth when using ultrasonically or laser-activated irrigation and concluded that there was no difference.


Costa,et al5 conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the orthodontic mini-implants (OMI) stability and concluded that it significantly increased the stability.


Paiva and coworkers6 evaluated how Er,Cr:YSGG laser, associated or not with 5% fluoride varnish, influences the surface roughness and volume loss of bovine root dentin submitted to erosive and/or abrasive wear and concluded that it was an effective method to increase resistance to wear.


Roeykens and coworkers7 assessed the effect of laser doppler flowmetry in measurement of pulpal vitality. The abstract is reproduced in full.


Objective: It has been stated that blood pigments within discolored teeth may interfere with Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) measurements. The aim of this study was to assess pulp vitality with LDF in a cohort of discolored traumatized teeth referred for endodontic treatment or where the referring dentist had doubts regarding maintained tooth vitality. Background: Discoloration of teeth is a common sequel of dental trauma. Still today, it is taken as an indicator for root canal treatment. Transient apical breakdown (TAB) is confused with apical periodontitis, although it is a sequel of dental trauma in young mature teeth and will result in revascularization and dissolution of the apical radiolucency. Methods: A total of 26 patients with 28 discolored teeth, belonging to a cohort of referred patients with traumatized teeth referred for root canal treatment and/or pulp vitality assessment were screened on color with photographs by three investigators, with traditional sensibility tests and with a Moor VMS II LDF meter. Results: The color of the intrinsically discolored teeth was grayish in 58% of teeth, blue 20%, pink/crimson 12%, and yellow 4%. Eighty-five percent were central maxillary incisors, 11% were mandibulary incisors. Thanks to LDF, 43% of the trauma cases in this small cohort with discoloration underwent root canal treatment instead of 70% with traditional sensibility tests as indicator. TAB was found in 11%. Conclusions: LDF was decisive in diagnosing vitality of discolored teeth and there was no negative impact of tooth discoloration on LDF measurements.



Baser Keklikciet al8 investigated the effects of different wavelengths low-level laser therapies on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) during orthodontic tooth movement in rats by micro-computerized tomography. They concluded that the 532-nm, 650-nm, and 940-nm lasers significantly reduced the volume of OIIRR. In addition, the 532-nm laser reduced the number of lacunae both distally and totally than all the other groups.


Haghighat and coworkers 9 assessed the effect of LLLT on the recovery time of neurosensory deficits after Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy using the blink reflex. They concluded that the 810-nm diode laser can accelerate the recovery from paresthesia after orthognathic surgery.


AlMoharib et al10 compared the efficacy of biofilm removal from implant-like titanium surfaces by an erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser, titanium brush and carbon fiber curette. They found that Er:YAG laser treatment is an effective method for reducing the bacterial biofilm on titanium discs. However, on a threadless titanium surface, Er:YAG laser does not exhibit a significantly greater efficacy in biofilm removal than commonly used titanium brushes or carbon fiber curettes.



Bashir, Nasir Zeeshan and coworkers11 published a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of indocyanine green-mediated photodynamic therapy (ICG-PDT) as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT), in the management of chronic periodontitis. They concluded that it improved treatment outcomes at 3 and 6 months post-therapy.


REFERENCES:


1. Kaplan, Tuna; Sezgin, Guzide Pelin; Sonmez Kaplan, Sema. Effect of a 980-nm diode laser on post-operative pain after endodontic treatment in teeth with apical periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial. BMC oral health Volume: ‏ 21 Issue: ‏ 1 Pages: ‏ 41 Published: ‏ 2021 Jan 22.

2. Costa, Davani Latarullo; Thome de Azevedo, Eduardo; Przysiezny, Paulo Eduardo; et al. Use of Lasers and Piezoelectric in Intraoral Surgery. Oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America Published: ‏ 2021-Jan-28 (Epub 2021 Jan 28)

3. Parlar Oz, Ozge; Demirkol, Nermin. Effectiveness of in-office bleaching treatment with different activation techniques on tooth color changes and sensitivity: A randomized clinical trial. American journal of dentistry Volume: ‏ 34 Issue: ‏ 1 Pages: ‏ 23-30 Published: ‏ 2021-Feb.

4. Liapis, D; De Bruyne, M A A; De Moor, R J G; et al. Post-operative pain after ultrasonically and laser-activated irrigation during root canal treatment: A randomized clinical trial. International endodontic journal Published: ‏ 2021-Feb-17 (Epub 2021 Feb 17).

5. Costa, Ana Carolina de Figueiredo; Maia, Thays Allane Cordeiro; de Barros Silva, Paulo Goberlanio; et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy on the orthodontic mini-implants stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Progress in orthodontics Volume: ‏ 22 Issue: ‏ 1 Pages: ‏ 6 Published: ‏ 2021 Feb 15.

6. Paiva, Gabriella Rodovalho; Dibb, Regina Guenka Palma; Faraoni, Juliana Jendiroba; et al. Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on root dentin submitted to erosive and/or abrasive challenges. Brazilian oral research Volume: ‏35 Pages: e29 Published: ‏ 2021.

7. Roeykens, Herman; De Coster, Peter; Jacquet, Wolfgang; et al. The Decisive Role of Laser Doppler Flowmetry for Pulp Preservation in Discolored Traumatized Teeth. Photobiomodulation, photomedicine, and laser surgery Published: ‏ 2021-Feb-23 (Epub 2021 Feb 23).

8. Baser Keklikci, Hasibe; Yagci, Ahmet Effects of different wavelengths of low-level laser therapy on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption in rats investigated with micro-computerized tomography. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics Volume: ‏ 159 Issue: ‏ 3 Pages: ‏ e245-e251 Published: ‏ 2021-Mar (Epub 2021 Jan 29).

9. Haghighat, Abbas; Khosrawi, Saeid; Tamizifar, Alireza; et al. Does Low-Level Laser Photobiomodulation Improve Neurosensory Recovery After Orthognathic Surgery? A Clinical Trial With Blink Reflex. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Volume: ‏ 79 Issue: ‏ 3 Pages: ‏ 685-693 Published: ‏ 2021-Mar (Epub 2020 Nov 30).

10. AlMoharib, Hani S; Steffensen, Bjorn; Zoukhri, Driss; et al. Efficacy of an Er:YAG laser in the decontamination of dental implant surfaces: an in vitro study. Journal of periodontology Published: ‏ 2021-Mar-09 (Epub 2021 Mar 09).

11. Bashir, Nasir Zeeshan; Singh, Har-Amrit; Virdee, Satnam Singh. Indocyanine green-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as an adjunct to periodontal therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical oral investigations Published: ‏ 2021-Mar-12 (Epub 2021 Mar 12).


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