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Laser Literature Review August 2020

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).

Lopes et al1 compared the effect of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser at different irradiation parameters and acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets to enamel. They concluded that Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation operated at 42.4 J/cm2 and 29.3 J/cm2 is a better alternative for etching enamel prior to the orthodontic treatment than phosphoric acid.

In the ISLD laser journal, vol. 12, issue 1/2020 on page 38, under the heading news, there is a report that researchers from the Fraunhofer Insitute for Cell Therapy and Immunology in Halle (Saale) in Germany have developed a highly specific antibiotic against periodontal disease. The compound is effective in two ways: it can only be absorbed by the pathogens and it also only works on them so fewer antibiotics are needed. The product is still in development.

de Pedro and coworkers2 assessed the effect of photobiomodulation for pain management in burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients, as well as analysing the impact on different aspects of quality of life and concluded that it was effective in controlling pain as well as having a positive impact on the psychological state of the patients.

Casado et al3 published an article examining the use of laser light during bleaching and found that it will not reduce the incidence or severity of sensitivity and will not increase the degree of color change compared with nonlaser light sources.

Maracci and coworkers4 compared the effect of a rapid low-level laser therapy (LLLT) protocol to the use of the Michigan occlusal splint in the treatment of myofascial pain, and also evaluated their impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). They concluded that the Michigan occlusal splint was effective in reducing pain and improving OHRQoL whilst treatment with the rapid LLLT protocol only provided an improvement in OHRQoL.

De Oliveira Chami et al5 evaluated the effect of a rapid treatment protocol of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with myofascial pain and mouth opening limitation and concluded that it reduced pain in both groups.

Ahrari et al6 published a study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and complications of several bleaching methods in patients with discolored teeth after orthodontic treatment. This randomized clinical trial involved 60 volunteers (31 women, 29 men) aged 14 to 30 years, who finished fixed orthodontic therapy at least three months before the study commencement and complained of discoloration on upper front teeth. The subjects were divided into four groups by treatment. The patients in group 1 received home bleaching, whereas those in groups 2 to 4 underwent in-office bleaching using a diode laser, a plasma arc and no light source, respectively. All methods were effective, but the laser assisted group was most effective as it produced effective results with the least sensitivity and over the shortest period of time.

Dompe and coworkers7 published an article which I feel would be of interest to readers. The abstract is reproduced in full.

The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities for the application of laser therapy in medicine and dentistry by analyzing lasers' underlying mechanism of action on different cells, with a special focus on stem cells and mechanisms of repair. The interest in the application of laser therapy in medicine and dentistry has remarkably increased in the last decade. There are different types of lasers available and their usage is well defined by different parameters, such as: wavelength, energy density, power output, and duration of radiation. Laser irradiation can induce a photobiomodulatory (PBM) effect on cells and tissues, contributing to a directed modulation of cell behaviors, enhancing the processes of tissue repair. Photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low-level laser therapy (LLLT), can induce cell proliferation and enhance stem cell differentiation. Laser therapy is a non-invasive method that contributes to pain relief and reduces inflammation, parallel to the enhanced healing and tissue repair processes. The application of these properties was employed and observed in the treatment of various diseases and conditions, such as diabetes, brain injury, spinal cord damage, dermatological conditions, oral irritation, and in different areas of dentistry.

Kheiri et al8 reviewed the results of different methods of Low Level Laser treatment on bone formation in critical size bone defects of in vivo studies and found that new bone formation can be increased in the early stage by applying low-level laser therapy through stimulating osteoblasts and fibroblasts' proliferation.

Walinski and coworkers9 published an article with Guidelines for the Biopsy of Oral Mucosal Lesions Using a Laser.

Kamal et al10 investigated the efficacy of delivering low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of dry socket and concluded that LLLT irradiation influences biomodulation of dry socket healing by dampening inflammation, promoting vascularization, stimulating granulation, and controlling pain symptoms.

Khalighi, and coworkers11 investigated the use of the ER,CrYSGG laser to reduce the thickness of the epithelium and thus allow better penetration of topical anaethetic and concluded that it enhanced the efficiency of these anaesthetics.

Alkhudhairy 12 published a study to evaluate and compare various conditioning regimes (laser and conventional) on shear bond strength (SBS) of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) bonded to dentin. The conclusions were that dentine conditioning enhances bond strength and that the Er, Cr YSGG was better than the Er:YAG laser.

Zayed et al12 assessed the clinical effectiveness of photobiomodulation on dental implant osseointegration in a systematic review and found that four of the studies reviewed showed a positive effect and three showed no effect.

Pei and coworkers13 compared diode laser pulpotomy and formocresol pulpotomy in deciduous molars and concluded that both clinically and radiographically there was no significant difference.

Parker et al14 published an article on the current concepts of laser-oral tissue interactions which readers will find of interest.

Malthiery and coworkers15 investigated the effects of green light photobiomudulation on dental pulp stem cells and found that it significantly improved dental stem cell proliferation and migration which showed encouraging results for surgical wound healing.

Peng et al16 published a systematic review to determine whether prophylactic low level laser therapy reduced the risk of severe oral mucositis (OM) in patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy and concluded that it could.

Palled and coworkers17 published a study to evaluate whether Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) improved the healing of the implant surgical site and found that healing of both hard and soft tissues may be enhanced.

Guarnieri et al18 published a nonrandomized, retrospective multicenter study aimed at evaluating the success rates, peri-implant marginal bone loss, and clinical parameters around single implants with and without laser-microgrooved collars placed and loaded using different protocols after 7 to 10 years of function. They reduced bone loss by 50% after 10 years of function regardless of the type of implant placement and loading protocol.


1. Lopes, Daniela S; Pereira, Daisa L; Mota, Claudia Cbo; Melo, Luciana Sa; Ana, Patricia A; Zezell, Denise M; Gomes, Anderson Sl. Surface Evaluation of Enamel Etched by Er,Cr:YSGG Laser for Orthodontic Purpose. The journal of contemporary dental practice Volume:21 Issue:3 Pages:227-232. Published: 2020 Mar 01.. .

2. de Pedro, M; Lopez-Pintor, R M; Casanas, E; et al. Effects of Photobiomodulation with Low-Level Laser Therapy in Burning Mouth Syndrome: A randomized clinical trial. Oral diseases Published: ‏ 2020-May-27 (Epub 2020 May 27)..

3. Casado, Bgs; Pellizzer, E P; Maior, Jr Souto; et al Laser Influence on Dental Sensitivity Compared to Other Light Sources Used During In-office Dental Bleaching: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Operative dentistry Published: ‏ 2020-Jun-05 (Epub 2020 Jun 05).

4. Maracci, Lucas Machado; Stasiak, Gabriela; de Oliveira Chami, Vitoria et al.

Treatment of myofascial pain with a rapid laser therapy protocol compared to occlusal splint: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Cranio : the journal of craniomandibular practice Pages: ‏ 1-7 Published: ‏ 2020-Jun-03 (Epub 2020 Jun 03).

5. De Oliveira Chami, Vitoria; Maracci, Lucas Machado; Tomazoni, Fernanda; et al. Rapid LLLT protocol for myofascial pain and mouth opening limitation treatment in the clinical practice: An RCT. Cranio : the journal of craniomandibular practice Pages: ‏ 1-7 Published: ‏ 2020-Jun-03 (Epub 2020 Jun 03).

6. Ahrari, Farzaneh; Akbari, Majid; Mohammadipour, Hamideh Sadat; et al.

The efficacy and complications of several bleaching techniques in patients after fixed orthodontic therapy. A randomized clinical trial. Swiss dental journal Volume: ‏ 130 Issue: ‏ 6 Pages: ‏ 493-501 Published: ‏ 2020-Jun-15.

7. Dompe, Claudia; Moncrieff, Lisa; Matys, Jacek; et al. Photobiomodulation-Underlying Mechanism and Clinical Applications. Journal of clinical medicine Volume: ‏ 9 Issue: ‏ 6 Published: ‏ 2020 Jun 03.

8. Kheiri, Aida; Amid, Reza; Kheiri, Lida; et al. Effect of Low - Level Laser Therapy on Bone Regeneration of Critical-Size Bone Defects: A Systematic Review of In Vivo Studies and Meta-Analysis. Archives of oral biology Volume: ‏ 117 Pages: ‏ 104782 Published: ‏ 2020-May-28 (Epub 2020 May 28).

9. Walinski, Christopher J; Ou, Keng-Liang; Liang, Tracy M; et al.

Guidelines for the Biopsy of Oral Mucosal Lesions Using a Laser.

Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995) Volume: ‏ 41 Issue: ‏ 6 Pages: ‏ 313-317; quiz 318 Published: ‏ 2020-Jun.

10. Kamal, Aqsa; Salman, Basheer; Ar, Noor Hayatie; et al. Management of dry socket with low-level laser therapy. Clinical oral investigations Published: ‏ 2020-Jun-19 (Epub 2020 Jun 19.)

11. Khalighi, Hamid Reza; Mojahedi, Massoud; Parandoosh, Azadeh.

Efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted delivery of topical anesthesia in the oral

Mucosa. Clinical oral investigations Published: ‏ 2020-Jun-18 (Epub 2020 Jun 18

12. Alkhudhairy, Fahad . Dentin Conditioning Using Different Laser Prototypes

(Er,Cr:YSGG; Er:YAG) on Bond Assessment of Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement.The journal of contemporary dental Practice Volume: ‏ 21 Issue: ‏ 4 Pages: ‏ 426-430 Published: ‏ 2020 Apr 01.

13. Pei, Shan-Li; Shih, Wen-Yu; Liu, Jeng-Fen Outcome comparison between diode laser pulpotomy and formocresol pulpotomy on human primary molars. Journal of dental sciences Volume: 15 issue: ‏ 2 Pages: ‏ 163-167, Published: ‏ 2020-Jun (Epub 2020 Apr 10).

14. Parker, Steven; Cronshaw, Mark; Anagnostaki, Eugenia; et al. Current Concepts of Laser-Oral Tissue Interaction. Dentistry Journal Volume: 8 Issue:‏ 3 Published: 2020 Jun 28.

15. Malthiery, Eve; Chouaib, Batoul; Hernandez-Lopez, Ana Maria; et al.

Effects of green light photobiomodulation on Dental Pulp Stem Cells: enhanced proliferation and improved wound healing by cytoskeleton reorganization and cell softening. Lasers in medical science Published: ‏ 2020-Jul-04 (Epub 2020 Jul 04).

16. Peng, Jiakuan; Shi, Yujie; Wang, Jiongke; et al. Low-level laser therapy in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology Published: ‏ 2020-Jun- 05 (Epub 2020 Jun 05).

17. Palled, Varsha; Rao, Dr Jitendra; Singh, Dr Raghuwar Dayal; et al. Assessment of healing of dental implant surgical site following Low-Level Laser Therapy using Bio-Clinical parameters: An Exploratory Study. The Journal of oral implantology Published: ‏2020-Jul-13 (Epub 2020 Jul 13).

18. Guarnieri, Renzo; Testarelli, Luca; Zuffetti, Francesco; et al. Comparavtive

Results of Single Implants With and Without Laser-Microgrooved Collar Placed and Loaded with Different Protocols: A Long-Term (7 to 10 years) Retrospective Multicenter Study. The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants Volume:‏35 Issue: ‏4 Pages: 841-849 Published: ‏2020 Jul/Aug.

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