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Laser Literature Review December 2020

Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, Director and Cofounder of the Asia Pacific Institute of Dental Education and Research (AIDER), Australian representative of World Federation of Laser Dentistry (WFLD).

Anand et al1 published a study to compare the antifungal efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, LASER, and 1% clotrimazole as irrigants by reducing the colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida albicans in the infected root canals of primary teeth and found no significant difference between the groups.

Chegeni and coworkers2 compared two different settings of irradiation of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser on dental implants regarding surface alterations and determined the best settings for less damage on the surface. The following descriptive classification on surface damage was employed: no damage (class A), minimal effects (class B), metal fall with melting (class C), and destruction with carbonization (class D). The assessment was made through a descriptive scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Side firing and conical tips at 50 mJ were classified as class A. Side firing at 84 mJ and cylindrical tips 50 mJ and 84 mJ were classified as class B. Finally, class C defects were found in the areas where the conical tip was used at 84 mJ.

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as a complementary step of selective removal of dental caries appears as an ideal choice to help manage caries with minimal interventions. Sub-lethal dose of aPDT (sPDT) impressively affects microbial virulence, although it does not kill microorganisms.

This study by Afrasiabi, et al3 aimed to investigate the influence of sPDT using diode laser plus chlorophyllin-phycocyanin mixture (PhotoActive+) on changes in gtfB gene expression and the subsequent protein expression of GtfB . It demonstrated the potential effect of PhotoActive+ mediated sPDT on one of the most important virulence factors of S. mutans.

Ferri and coworkers4 found that photobiomodulation twice a week was as effective as coticosteriods in treating lichenplanus.

Kirmali et al5 evaluated the effect of the surface treatments on flexural strengths and flexural modulus of glass-fibre-reinforced composite (GFRC) posts .The flexural strengths of fibre posts treated with sandblasting, hydrofluoric acid, 1W and 2W laser were statistically similar with control group (P>0.01). However, the flexural strength of fibre posts treated with 3W, 4W, 5W and 6W laser was statistically lower than control group (P<0.01). High laser irradiations causes melting on the post surface and breaks in fibrils.

Gol and coworkers6 investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) on socket healing after tooth extraction in rats given long-term bisphosphonates. They concluded that LLLT and ESWT have a similar effect on socket healing in the early period but that co-use is more effective for healing.

Sabe et al7 examined the effects of two different wavelengths of diode laser (445 & 915 nm) after the bleaching process, on the enamel micro-hardness and concluded that the 445 nm Diode laser did not reduce enamel micro-hardness, making it suitable for bleaching treatments.

Ghodke and coworkers8 published a study evaluating the efficacy of the 810 nm Diode laser in the maintenance of dental implants and found that it had a 76.67% drop in microbial count and a 99.28% reduction in P gingivalis.


Cronshaw et al9 published a review on the dose parameters of photobiomodulation in dentistry which readers may find of interest.

Gulati and coworkers10 published a pilot study to assess the effect of LLLT on peri-implant crestal bone levels and found that it reduced the crestal bone resorption.

Deluca et al11 evaluated photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) as adjuncts to pulp revascularization using cultures of apical papilla cells (APCs) and endothelial cells (HUVECs). They found this treatment to be a potentially effective adjunct to revascularization in non vital immature teeth.

Scarano and coworkers12 found that photobiomodulation using the Nd:YAG laser accelerated the healing process following third molar extraction.

Domah et al13 investigated whether LLLT reduces postoperative morbidity following surgical removal of mandibular third molars. They found that LLLT significantly reduced postoperative morbidity.

Ghosh and coworkers14 compared the efficacy of a fluoride varnish, a dentin bonding agent, and Er, Cr: YSGG laser in treating noncarious cervical hypersensitivity, in vivo.

They concluded that all three systems were effective, but found that the laser treated group produced the least recurrence.

Alamoudi et al15 compared the clinical and radiographic success rates of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and formocresol (FC) for pulpotomy in primary teeth. They found that both forms of treatment produced favourable treatment outcomes.

Nima and coworkers16 tested the efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) mediated by curcumin with EDTA against Streptococcus mutans in planktonic suspension using blue LED light and found that it had a strong inhibitory effect showing the potential for use as a disinfectant for dental tissues.

Bianchi de Moraes and coworkers17 measured and compared periodontal tissue healing using 2 different laser protocols and concluded that the 10J/cm2 group was better for improving periodontal tissue healing and both groups that they tried (30J/cm2 was the other one), were effective for reducing facial edema.

Nevins and coworkers18 evaluated the reestablishment of bone-to-implant contact on infected dental implant surfaces following decontamination with an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser and reconstructive therapy. They concluded that it could be beneficial, but further studies are needed.

Dhayanidhi et al19 published a study on the use of lasers in clinical practice and stated that the advantages of the use of lasers were greater than the disadvantages and state that there is a great need for creating an awareness of laser dentistry.

Poli, and coworkers20 published a systematic review of the rationale, techniques and energy dose considerations for using laser analgesia with restorative treatment.


1. Anand, Pallavi; Mathur, Shivani; Sachdev, Vinod; et al. Inter-comparison of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, LASER, and an antifungal agent as adjunct intracanal irrigation techniques to standard disinfection protocols in reducing Candida albicans counts in the root canals of primary teeth: A pilot study. Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Volume: ‏ 38 Issue: ‏ 3 Pages: ‏ 304-310 Published: ‏ 2020 Jul-Sep

2. Chegeni, Ehsan; Espana-Tost, Antonio; Figueiredo, Rui; et al. Effect of an Er,Cr:YSGG Laser on the Surface of Implants: A Descriptive Comparative Study of 3 Different Tips and Pulse Energies. Dentistry journal Volume: ‏ 8 Issue: ‏ 4 Published: ‏ 2020 Sep 30

3. Afrasiabi, Shima; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Chiniforush, Nasim; et al. Effects of sub-lethal dose of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on major virulence traits of Streptococcus mutans. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy Pages: ‏ 102044 Published: ‏ 2020-Sep-30 (Epub 2020 Sep 30)

4. Ferri, Elza Padilha; Cunha, Karen Roberta Lopes; Abboud, Clery Saad; et al.

Photobiomodulation is effective in oral lichen planus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Oral diseases Published: ‏ 2020-Oct-04 (Epub 2020 Oct 04).

5. Kirmali, Omer; Akcakus Battal, Tuba; Turker, Nurullah; et al. Mechanical properties of glass-fibre-reinforced composite posts after laser irradiation with different energy densities. Australian endodontic journal : the journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc Published: ‏ 2020-Oct-01 (Epub 2020 Oct 01).

6. Gol, Esma Bilge; Ozkan, Nilufer; Bereket, Cihan; et al. Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Therapy or Low-Level Laser Therapy: Which is More Effective in Bone Healing in Bisphosphonate Treatment? The Journal of craniofacial surgery Volume: ‏ 31 Issue: ‏ 7 Pages: ‏ 2043-2048 Published: ‏ 2020-Oct

7. Saberi, Sogol; Rouzsaz, Mahboubeh; Shafie, Farhad; et al. The effect of laser-activated bleaching with 445 nm and 915 nm diode lasers on enamel micro-hardness; an in vitro study. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy Volume: ‏ 31 Pages: ‏ 101952 Published: ‏ 2020-Sep (Epub 2020 Aug 18).

8. Ghodke, Prerna Sanjay; Hegde, Rashmi; Ansari, Waqas; et al.

A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of an 810-nm Diode Laser in the Maintenance of Dental Implants: A Peri-Implant Sulcular Fluid Analysis. The Journal of oral implantology Volume: ‏ 46 Issue: ‏ 4 Pages: ‏ 381-388 Published: ‏ 2020-Aug-01.

9. Cronshaw, Mark; Parker, Steven; Anagnostaki, Eugenia; et al. Photobiomodulation Dose Parameters in Dentistry: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Dentistry journal Volume:‏ 8 Issue: 4 Published: ‏ 2020 Oct 06.

10. Gulati, Prachi; Kumar, Manoj; Issar, Gaurav; et al. Effect of low level laser therapy on crestal bone levels around dental implants-A pilot study. Clinical implant dentistry and related research Published: ‏ 2020-Oct-15 (Epub 2020 Oct 15).

11. Deluca, Mariana Castello de Carvalho; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger; Aspesi, Marina; et al. Cytotoxic, migration and angiogenic effects of photodynamic therapy and photobiomodulation associated with a revascularization protocol.

Journal of endodontics Published: ‏ 2020-Oct-12 (Epub 2020 Oct 12.

12. Scarano, Antonio; Lorusso, Felice; Postiglione, Francesca; et al. Photobiomodulation Enhances the Healing of Postextraction Alveolar Sockets: A Randomized Clinical Trial With Histomorphometric Analysis and Immunohistochemistry. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Published: ‏ 2020-Sep-17 (Epub 2020 Sep 17).

13. Domah, Farya; Shah, Raunaq; Nurmatov, Ulugbek B; et al.

The Use of Laser Therapy to Reduce Postoperative Morbidity After Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Published: ‏ 2020-Sep-17 (Epub 2020 Sep 17).

14. Ghosh, Amrita; Mazumder, Dibyendu.

Comparative evaluation of treatment of noncarious cervical hypersensitivity by a fluoride varnish, a dentin bonding agent, and Er, Cr:YSGG laser: An in vivo study. Journal of conservative dentistry : JCD Volume: ‏ 22 Issue: ‏ 6 Pages: ‏ 516-521 Published: ‏ 2019 Nov-Dec (Epub 2020 Aug 20).

15. Alamoudi, Najlaa; Nadhreen, Alaa; Sabbagh, Heba; et al. Clinical and Radiographic Success of Low-Level Laser Therapy Compared with Formocresol Pulpotomy Treatment in Primary Molars. Pediatric Dentistry Volume: ‏42 Issue: 5 Pages: ‏359-366 Published: 2020-Sep-15.

16. Nima, Gabriel; Soto-Montero, Jorge; Alves, Livia A; et al.

Photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans by curcumin in combination with EDTA. Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials Published: ‏ 2020-Oct-31 (Epub 2020 Oct 31).

17. Bianchi de Moraes, Michelle; Gomes de Oliveira, Rubia; Raldi, Fernando Vagner; et al. Does the Low-Intensity Laser Protocol Affect Tissue Healing After Third Molar Removal? Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Volume: ‏ 78 Issue: ‏ 11 Pages: ‏ 1920.e1-1920.e9 Published: ‏ 2020-Nov (Epub 2020 May 19).

18. Nevins, Myron; Benfenati, Stefano Parma; Galletti, Primo; et al. Human Histologic Evaluations of the Use of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser to Decontaminate an Infected Dental Implant Surface in Preparation for Implant Reosseointegration. The International journal of periodontics & restorative dentistry Volume: ‏ 40 Issue: ‏ 6 Pages: ‏ 805-812 Published: ‏ 2020 Nov/Dec

19. Dhayanidhi, Aparnna; Mudiarasu, Narmatha; Mathivanan, Abirami; et al.

Laser Dentistry"-The Need of the Hour: A Cross-sectional Study. Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences Volume: ‏ 12 Issue: ‏ Suppl 1 Pages: ‏ S295-S298 Published: ‏ 2020-Aug (Epub 2020 Aug 28).

20. Poli, Riccardo; Parker, Steven; Anagnostaki, Eugenia; et al. Laser Analgesia Associated with Restorative Dental Care: A Systematic Review of the Rationale, Techniques, and Energy Dose Considerations. Dentistry journal Volume: 8 Issue: ‏ 4 Published: ‏ 2020 Nov 12.


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