Laser Literature Review
Compiled by Dr Igor Cernavin, Prosthodontist, Honorary Senior Fellow University of Melbourne School of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences.
Kanazirski et al1 published a study examining the effect of the Er:Yag laser on the amorphous smear layer in the marginal zone of the osteotomy site for placement of screw implants. They found that the smear layer formed during rotary osteotomy can be reduced using Er:YAG lasers.
Leonardo and coworkers2 published a study which evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of LA therapy with ICG in root canal treatment. They concluded that it significantly increased microbial reduction in root canals regardless of instrumentation sizes or the irrigation solution used.
Han et al3 published a study which evaluated the effect of Nd:YAG laser therapy on postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus after mandibular third molar surgery.
They concluded that the laser provided no significant benefit compared to the medication used. The medication used was dexamethasone 0.75 mg and loxoprofen 60 mg which were prescribed immediately and every 12 h thereafter for 3 days.
Zheng and coworkers4 published a systematic review and meta analysis on the effect of low level laser therapy on orthodontic dental alignment. The abstract is reproduced in full.
The aim of this study is to systematically summarize the available evidence regarding low-level laser therapy (LLLT) speed-up effect on dental alignment in comprehensive orthodontic treatment. An extensive electronic search was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Scopus up to February 20, 2023. The Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Form were used by two authors independently to assess the risk of bias (RoB). Statistical analysis was performed by Review Manager 5.3. The eight eligible trials were reviewed and included in qualitative synthesis. Four studies reported the overall time of leveling and alignment (OLAT, days), enabling a synthesizing of the data. The meta-analysis results showed that LLLT significantly reduced the overall time of leveling and alignment compared to control group (MD=-30.36, 95% CI range -41.50 to -19.22, P<0.0001), with moderate heterogeneity (chi2=4.10, P=0.25, I2=27%). Based on the data available, statistically significant evidence with moderate risk of bias suggests that LLLT may have a positive effect on accelerating alignment. However, due to the differences in intervention strategy and evaluating method, the conclusions should be interpreted with caution.
Seraj et al 5 published a study which investigated the photobiomodulation effect of an 810-nm diode laser in adjunction with topical anesthesia on pain perception during infiltration anesthesia of primary maxillary molars in children. They concluded that it did not promote significant additional effects on the pain intensity.
Abduljalil, and coworkers6 published a study to determine whether photobiomodulation therapy could increase the depth of analgesia during endodontic therapy of teeth affected with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. They concluded that it appears to be useful in minimizing discomfort and additional injection during root canal therapy.
This article evaluated re-osseointegration in peri-implantitis sites in animal models following laser therapy or antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The authors found that laser therapy may show a higher degree of re-osseointegration of implants than mechanical debridement.
Abdrabuh, Raghdah E et al8 compared children's anxiety level and pain perception during cavity preparation using an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser vs traditional rotational treatment. They concluded that using Er:YAG lasers to remove caries produces minimal pain and anxiety and reduces the requirement for LA.
Grajales and coworkers9 published a study the aim of which was to assess the clinical effects of LLLT on the acceleration of orthodontic movement and to establish the most effective LLLT wavelength to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. They found that wavelengths≤810nm and energy density values≤5.3J/cm2 were associated with faster orthodontic tooth movement.
Papadopoulos et al10 published an in vitro study to investigate the safety of using blue diode laser (445nm) for tooth bleaching with regard to intrapulpal temperature increase operating at different average power and time settings. They concluded that the intrapulpal temperature rise was below the threshold for irreversible thermal damage of the pulp (5.6°C).
Reusing the powder in selective laser melting machines after multiple cycles is a cost-effective procedure for dental laboratories. However, information on the metal-ceramic bond strength of the framework fabricated by using recycled powder is lacking. Albayrak, Haydr and coworkers11 published a paper regarding this procedure and concluded that metal-ceramic bond strength was unaffected by alloy powder reuse. However, the bonding agent brand may affect the bond strength of cobalt chromium frameworks fabricated by using selective laser melting.
Koshbin et al12 published their results of a clinical trial on the effect of 810nm Diode Laser Irradiation on the time of initiation and depth of anesthesia for endodontic treatment of mandibular frst molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Their results showed there was no significant difference between the laser group and control groups in pain severity or anesthesia onset
Farshidfar and coworkers13 published an updated review of current clinical trials on the effect of photobiomodulation on temporomandibular pain and functions in patients with temporomandibular disorders. They showed the promising effects of PBMT on the alleviation of pain and improvement in function. Using the infrared diode laser with a wavelength ranging between 780-980 nm, an energy density of<100 J/ cm2, and an output power of≤500 mW for at least six sessions of treatment seemed to be a promising option for treating mentioned TMDs signs and symptoms based on the previously reported findings.
Zheng, De-Hua; Du, Yu-Qing; (...); Li, Bing. Effect of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic dental alignment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lasers in medical science 38 (1) , pp.184. 2023-08-14.
Abduljalil, Salma Musa Adam; Ahmed, Nada Tawfig Hashim; (...); Gismalla, Bakri Gobara. Effect of Photobiomodulation on the Depth of Local Anesthesia during Endodontic Treatment of Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis. The journal of contemporary dental practice 24 (7) , pp.437-441. 2023-07-01.
Patil, Shankargouda; Bhandi, Shilpa; (...); Tanaka, Eiji. Efficacy of laser in re-osseointegration of dental implants-a systematic review. Lasers in medical science 38 (1) , pp.199. 2023-09-02.
Abdrabuh, Raghdah E; Meligy, Omar Abd El Sadek El; (...); Farsi, Najat Ma. Evaluation of the Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser and the Conventional Method on Pain Perception and Anxiety Level in Children during Caries Removal: A Randomized Split-mouth Study. International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry 16 (Suppl 1) , pp.S39-S44. 2023-aug.
Effectiveness of photobiomodulation with low-level lasers on the acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of split-mouth randomised clinical trials. Lasers in medical science 38 (1) , pp.200. 2023-09-04.
Albayrak, Haydar; Ayata, Mustafa and Demirel, Bilal. Recycling selective laser melting alloy powder on cobalt chromium-to-ceramic bond strength. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 2023-sep-15.12.
Khoshbin, Elham; Ghasemi, Leila; (...); Karkehabadi, Hamed. Effect of 810nm Diode Laser Irradiation on the Time of Initiation and Depth of Anesthesia for Endodontic Treatment of Mandibular First Molars with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Clinical Trial. Photobiomodulation, photomedicine, and laser surgery 41 (9) , pp.475-482. 2023-sep.
Farshidfar, Nima; Farzinnia, Golnoush; (...); Hakimiha, Neda. The Effect of Photobiomodulation on Temporomandibular Pain and Functions in Patients With Temporomandibular Disorders: An Updated Systematic Review of the Current Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of lasers in medical sciences 14 , pp.e242023-08-05.